The animal cell is a tiny thing that is in our bodies. It is also known as the basic unit of life. In 1665 Robert Hooke had watched the first cell by the microscope that he made. He had attended a plant cell. He has seen that there were so many rooms in that sample. Also, He named that rooms as cells. There are different types of cells. Their functions are very different. Structures inside a cell fit their purpose.
All cells are generally small. The reason cells are low is that material moves into a cell through a process called diffusion. So oxygen gets in that way, and carbon dioxide is going to move out in the same way. And so it would take a long time for the material to diffuse into a cell. The distance that the content has to move is relatively small. Scientists watch cells from the microscope.
They discovered and invented the microscope. It comes in two different types. They are optical microscopes and electron microscopes. Optical microscopes use light and lenses to magnify the image. It is a really simple microscope. It is straightforward to use.
An electron microscope has a number of magnets. And those magnets will use to focus electrons either through an image or bouncing it off an image. There are two types of an electron microscope. They are transmission and scanning electron microscopes. A quick demo would be to take a big magnet and hold it really close to an old television or computer screen. The magnet is changing the path of the electrons, actually, increase the magnification of the specimen. There are two major types of cells. They are called prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cells are going to lack a nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are going to have a nucleus. Bacteria are prokaryotic and the archaea bacteria, Eukaryotic are going to be things like plants, animals, fungi, protists, things like that that are really really large. The scale is bad here because if I were to scale it right, the bacteria would be about the size of this mitochondria. All cells are going to have a cell membrane around the outside. The cell membrane is very important to every cell. Because it helps to keep the shape of the cell, it is the cover of the animal cell. In the plant cell, there is another outside cover. It is called a cell wall. There are so many organelles in the animal cell.
It is the main organelle in the cell. There are all chromosomes can be found in the nucleus.
They put all of their genes to make ribosomes in one area within the nucleus. Not only that, there are a lot of proteins in the nucleus. This is an area where the chromosomes are all producing ribosomal RNA to make the ribosomes. The nuclear membrane covers the Nucleus. In the cell division, this chromatin is seen as chromosomes. There are two main deeds of chromosomes. They store genetic materials, and they help to give genetic material to the next generation. Every species has a specific number of chromosomes. Human beings have 46 chromosomes.
It is the little dots inside the cell. It’s a little more complex than that. There are two parts to it. They are little subunit and a large subunit. And the messenger RNA is going to move through that and then on the top. The transfer RNA and actually going to build our proteins, so the function of the ribosome is going to be to build proteins. And prokaryotic and eukaryotic have different ribosomes, and some of our antibiotics actually work.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum. It’s actually a membrane that is continuous with the nucleus. It comes out from the nucleus. You then have ribosomes that are sitting on the outside. That is why it is called a rough ER. It is also called a factory inside a cell. Basically, the messenger, RNA, comes through. We can make the proteins that we want to make. It is like a factory. It also will produce the membranes that are going to be used within the cell.
Golgi complex is the bunch of flat pans covered with a membrane. It looks kind of like a pita bread that is folded on top of itself. They are going to be created in the endoplasmic reticulum. They will then be packaged in a little transport vesicle and moved to the Golgi apparatus.
The cytoskeleton is the structure inside the cell. It is to create a physical structure in the cell. When the cell is moving, the cytoskeleton is acting as a template of a cell. It doesn’t let to break the cell. So it is kind of like a bridge. The cytoskeleton can be seen in the eukaryotic cells. They are spreading all over the cytoplasm in the cell. There are three types of the cytoskeleton. They are microtubule, microfilament, and intermediate filament. The microtubules are made of tubulin proteins.
It is like a tube. Its diameter is about 25 nm. The microfilament is made of actin proteins. There are two chains. Its diameter is about 7 nm. The intermediate filament is made with fiber proteins. Its diameter is about 8-12 nm. Those cytoskeletons help to the alliance with the cell. It is holding the organelles and enzymes of the cell. Mainly it helps to keep the size of the cell.
It is to produce a lot of lipids, cholesterol, things like that in the cell. It is also really important in detoxification. Also, It is breaking down toxins. They store Ca 2+ ions.
The mitochondria are the place that is created energy for the cell. It is also called as the energy generator of the cell. That basically has a folded membrane inside a membrane. It looks a lot like bacteria. Because scientists think they became
parts of our cells through endosymbiotic theory. Finally, they became a major part of the cell. They make a lot of ATP. They produce ATP for that cell, and then they get a place to live.
The vacuole is found inside plants. There are not in the animal cell, but sometimes it can find smaller vacuole in animal cells. It is very large. It looks like a big ball full of fluid and covered with a membrane. That fluid calls as the fluid of the cell. There are sugar, water, ions, and colorings in the fluid of the cell. It balances and pressures to the cell., that turgor pressure that keeps the cell properly inflated. Some protists will actually have a contractile vacuole that can pump water out when they are living in a freshwater environment as well.
It is the fluid, but it actually contains solutes inside it. It is acted as a gradient within the cell.
There are many enzymes inside the lysozyme. They are like suicide sac. Out of them, there are many digestive enzymes inside it. It is contained within this membrane. This lysosome has basically happened to those digestive enzymes that would go throughout the cell and would kill the cell, dissolve the cell. And so the process of apoptosis, the cell kills itself, is a product of lysosomes.
The centriole is part of the centrosome. Basically, it is important in positioning within the cell. It is located near the nucleus. It’s also important as a cell divides. There is a couple of centrioles. It has not a membrane.
Comparison between animal cell and plant cell
A plant cell has a cell wall. It is very important to keep the shape of the cell. But animal cell hasn’t cell wall. The animal cell has a big cytoplasm. There is a small cytoplasm in plant cells. There is a big vacuole in the plant cell. It is also acted in keeping the cell shape. But animal cell has not very big vacuole. But there are many small vacuoles in the cytoplasm in animal cells.